HEAVY METAL CONTENT AND ASSOCIATED HEALTH RISKS IN SELECTED ENERGY DRINKS SOLD IN BIRNIN KEBBI, NIGERIA.
Energy drinks are sold worldwide because they boost physical and mental performance. However, studies show that some of them contain high levels of heavy metals, prompting a safety evaluation of all brands of energy drinks. This study evaluated the safety of three brands of energy drinks (Fearless, Monster, and Power Horse) sold in Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria, with regard to heavy metal concentrations. The heavy metals evaluated are iron (Fe), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb). Samples of the energy drinks were subjected to atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the results were compared with the World Health Organization standards for drinks. The average daily intake (ADI), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) of the heavy metals were also calculated. The levels of Fe, Cu, and Cd were above the permissible limits in all the energy drinks, while zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) were below the permissible limits. The ADI of the heavy metals in the three energy drinks was within the recommended limits. However, the HQ and CR of Cd in all the energy drinks and Pb in Power Horse were beyond the recommended limits (HQ > 1 and CR > 10-6). This suggests that the three energy drinks sold and consumed in Birnin Kebbi may pose health hazards. There is a need to sensitize consumers in the city about the occurrence and risk of heavy metals in energy drinks.
Copyright (c) 2022 Yahaya et al
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.